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CDKN2A/B Alterations Impair Prognosis in Adult BCR-ABL1 Positive Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Patients

Iacobucci, I., Ferrari, A., Lonetti, A., Papayannidis, C., Paoloni, F., Trino, S., Storlazzi, C.T., Ottaviani, E., Cattina, F., Impera, L., et al

Purpose
The 9p21 locus, encoding three important tumor suppressors (p16/CDKN2A, p14/ARF, and p15/CDKN2B), is a major target of inactivation in the pathogenesis of many human tumors.

Patients and Methods
To explore, at high resolution, the frequency and size of alterations affecting this locus in adult BCR-ABL1–positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and to investigate their prognostic value, 112 patients (101 de novo and 11 relapsed cases) were analyzed by genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays and gene candidate deep exon sequencing. Paired diagnosis–relapse samples were further available and analyzed for 19 (19%) cases.

Results
CDKN2A/ARF and CDKN2B genomic alterations were identified in 29% and 25% of newly diagnosed patients, respectively. Deletions were monoallelic in 72% of cases, and in 43% of them, the minimal overlapping region of the lost area spanned only the CDKN2A/B gene locus. An analysis conducted at relapse showed an increase in the detection rate of CDKN2A/ARF loss (47%) compared with the time of diagnosis (P = 0.06). Point mutations within the 9p21 locus were found at very low levels, with only a nonsynonymous substitution in the exon 2 of CDKN2A. Of note, deletions of CDKN2A/B were significantly associated with poor outcomes in terms of overall survival (P = 0.0206), disease free-survival (P = 0.0010), and cumulative incidence of relapse (P = 0.0014).

Conclusions
Inactivation of the 9p21 locus by genomic deletion is a frequent event in BCR-ABL1–positive ALL. Deletions are frequently acquired during leukemia progression and are a poor prognostic marker of long-term outcomes.

Citation

Iacobucci, I., Ferrari, A., Lonetti, A., Papayannidis, C., Paoloni, F., Trino, S., Storlazzi, C.T., Ottaviani, E., Cattina, F., Impera, L., et al "CDKN2A/B Alterations Impair Prognosis in Adult BCR-ABL1 Positive Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Patients" Clinical Cancer Research (2011): 7,413–23