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Diagnostic tools for inborn errors of human immunity (primary immunodeficiencies and immune dysregulatory diseases)

Richardson, A.M., Moyer, A.M., Hasadsri, L. et al.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:
The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of diagnostic testing in primary immunodeficiency and immune dysregulatory disorders (PIDDs), particularly focusing on flow cytometry and genetic techniques, utilizing specific examples of PIDDs.

RECENT FINDINGS:
Flow cytometry remains a vital tool in the diagnosis and monitoring of immunological diseases. Its utility ranges from cellular analysis and specific protein quantitation to functional assays and signaling pathway analysis. Mass cytometry combines flow cytometry and mass spectrometry to dramatically increase the throughput of multivariate single-cell analysis. Next-generation sequencing in combination with other molecular techniques and processing algorithms has become more widely available and identified the diverse and heterogeneous genetic underpinnings of these disorders. As the spectrum of disease is further clarified by increasing immunological, genetic, and epigenetic knowledge, the careful application of these diagnostic tools and bioinformatics will assist not only in our understanding of these complex disorders, but also enable the implementation of personalized therapeutic approaches for disease management.

Citation

Richardson, A.M., Moyer, A.M., Hasadsri, L. et al. "Diagnostic tools for inborn errors of human immunity (primary immunodeficiencies and immune dysregulatory diseases)" Current Allergy and Asthma Reports (2018): 19