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Dietary gluten triggers concomitant activation of CD4+ and CD8+ αβ T cells and γδ T cells in celiac disease

Han, A., Newell, E.W., Glanville, J. et al.

Celiac disease is an intestinal autoimmune disease driven by dietary gluten and gluten-specific CD4(+) T-cell responses. In celiac patients on a gluten-free diet, exposure to gluten induces the appearance of gluten-specific CD4(+) T cells with gut-homing potential in the peripheral blood. Here we show that gluten exposure also induces the appearance of activated, gut-homing CD8(+) αβ and γδ T cells in the peripheral blood. Single-cell T-cell receptor sequence analysis indicates that both of these cell populations have highly focused T-cell receptor repertoires, indicating that their induction is antigen-driven. These results reveal a previously unappreciated role of antigen in the induction of CD8(+) αβ and γδ T cells in celiac disease and demonstrate a coordinated response by all three of the major types of T cells. More broadly, these responses may parallel adaptive immune responses to viral pathogens and other systemic autoimmune diseases.

Citation

Han, A., Newell, E.W., Glanville, J. et al. "Dietary gluten triggers concomitant activation of CD4+ and CD8+ αβ T cells and γδ T cells in celiac disease" Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2013): 13,073–8