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Innate and secondary humoral responses are improved by increasing the time between MVA vaccine immunizations

Palgen, J.-L., Tchitchek, N., Rodriguez-Pozo, A. et al.

Comprehending the mechanisms behind the impact of vaccine regimens on immunity is critical for improving vaccines. Indeed, the time-interval between immunizations may influence B and T cells, as well as innate responses. We compared two vaccine schedules using cynomolgus macaques immunized with an attenuated vaccinia virus. Two subcutaneous injections 2 weeks apart led to an impaired secondary antibody response and similar innate myeloid responses to both immunizations. In contrast, a delayed boost (2 months) improved the quality of the antibody response and involved more activated/mature innate cells, induced late after the prime and responding to the recall. The magnitude and quality of the secondary antibody response correlated with the abundance of these neutrophils, monocytes, and dendritic cells that were modified phenotypically and enriched prior to revaccination at 2 months, but not 2 weeks. These late phenotypic modifications were associated with an enhanced ex vivo cytokine production (including IL-12/23 and IL-1β) by PBMCs short after the second immunization, linking phenotype and functions. This integrated analysis reveals a deep impact of the timing between immunizations, and highlights the importance of early but also late innate responses involving phenotypical changes, in shaping humoral immunity.

Citation

Palgen, J.-L., Tchitchek, N., Rodriguez-Pozo, A. et al. "Innate and secondary humoral responses are improved by increasing the time between MVA vaccine immunizations" npj Vaccines (2020): 24.