KRAS-IRF2 axis drives immune suppression and immune therapy resistance in colorectal cancer
Liao, W., Overman, M.J., Boutin, A.T., et al.
The biological functions and mechanisms of oncogenic KRASG12D (KRAS∗) in resistance to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy are not fully understood. We demonstrate that KRAS∗ represses the expression of interferon regulatory factor 2 (IRF2), which in turn directly represses CXCL3 expression. KRAS∗-mediated repression of IRF2 results in high expression of CXCL3, which binds to CXCR2 on myeloid-derived suppressor cells and promotes their migration to the tumor microenvironment. Anti-PD-1 resistance of KRAS∗-expressing tumors can be overcome by enforced IRF2 expression or by inhibition of CXCR2. Colorectal cancer (CRC) showing higher IRF2 expression exhibited increased responsiveness to anti-PD-1 therapy. The KRAS∗-IRF2-CXCL3-CXCR2 axis provides a framework for patient selection and combination therapies to enhance the effectiveness of ICB therapy in CRC.
Liao, W., Overman, M.J., Boutin, A.T., et al. "KRAS-IRF2 axis drives immune suppression and immune therapy resistance in colorectal cancer" Cancer Cell (2019): 559-572.e7