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Metal-encoded polystyrene microbeads as a mass cytometry calibration/normalization standard covering channels from yttrium (89 amu) to bismuth (209 amu)

Liu, J., Jarzabek, J., Majonis, D. et al.

Mass cytometry (MC) measures metal isotope signals from single cells and bead samples. Since large numbers of isotopes can be employed as labels, mass cytometry is a powerful analytical technique for multiparameter cytometric assays. The calibration protocol in MC is a critical algorithm, which employs metal-encoded microbeads as an internal standard to correct the data for instrumental signal drift. The current generation of commercially available beads carries four lanthanide elements (cerium, europium, holmium, and lutetium). However, this is not sufficient to calibrate the full span of detection channels, ranging from yttrium (89 amu) to bismuth (209 amu), which are now available. To address this issue we prepared polystyrene microbeads encoded with seven elements (yttrium, indium, and bismuth in addition to the four lanthanides) by multistage dispersion polymerization for MC calibration and normalization. The bead synthesis conditions were optimized to obtain microbeads that were uniform in size and generated strong MC signal intensities at similar levels for the eight encoded isotopes. Metal ion leaching from the beads under storage and application conditions was also examined. We demonstrated that the precision of normalized MC signals in the MC detection channels was improved by employing seven-element-encoded microbeads as a standard.

Citation

Liu, J., Jarzabek, J., Majonis, D. et al. "Metal-encoded polystyrene microbeads as a mass cytometry calibration/normalization standard covering channels from yttrium (89 amu) to bismuth (209 amu)" Analytical Chemistry (2020): 999-1,006